Websites are essentially documents, as you've seen by now. They're files, that your browser understands and can work with. Public websites are simply the same files, but on a folder on a server somewhere, allowing people access to this folder if you have the address (URL) that the server is configured to "serve" them for.
A quick, simple breakdown of what happens when you enter a URL into your browser and press "Enter":
"I need to access 'https://example.com'"
"Ok, that belongs to 184.108.40.206, talk to them"
"I need to access '220.127.116.11'"
"Ok, here you go"
and sends you all the resources (remember, the "Sources" tab in the dev tools window?)
That's it. This loop happens every time you click a link or enter a URL in the address bar.
So you saw the switch the DNS server does, why do we have that? Simply because we wanted remember them by their name, so they could be nicely displayed on billboards, telephone ads and so on.
Even though most obvious domains are taken already, it doesn't cost much to rent out a domain. My personal suggestion would be to turn to NameCheap, been using their services for years and no complaints at all!
You found your domain, bought a subscription - now what?
Now you have to find a server to put your files on, aka - hosting.
I can suggest my personal favorite - SiteGround their customer support is responsive, no uptime problems, no complaints whatsoever.
In the example with the DNS server, notice that the domain does the address switch. That means you start the configuration there.
Deployment means - to place your files on the server. Whether it's the first time or you're already deploying updates to your website, there are many ways to get your files on a server:
The deployment experience may vary between hosting companies. I will explain the general ideas and offer the recommended tools, but to understand how it's done for your setup, I'd suggest looking for tips that they might have already posted online or refer to their customer support.
The easiest way to get your files on a server is to literally just copy them over with a what's called an "FTP Client". I can suggest using FileZilla which is a very easy to use program. Don't be deterred by the old-school looking website, the software is free!
You can see a glimpse of the current UI in this post "FileZilla is the best free FTP client for Windows computers".
Once you install it, you will have to go in the settings/control panel in your hosting account, then create credentials (a profile) so that you can authenticate to your server from your home computer, via the FTP client you've installed.
Then, obviously go to your FTP client and log in.
If succesful, you should see your local folder on the left and the server files on the right. So, then just find the correct folder - most likely named "public_html" to my experience and copy the files over!
Refresh your website and you should see your "index.html" now get served to anyone who visits your domain!
I will provide more ways, as I add posts surrounding the next topics, so that you can get the context correctly.
Until then, I will just leave these links here: